Section One: Sorting it All Out
Classification- the division of organisms into groups, or classes, based on specific characteristics
Taxonomy- the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
Dichotomous key- an aid that is used to identify organisms and that consist of of the answer to a series of questions
Chapter Nine, Section One: Summary
An example of a branching diagram.
Section one was about classification. Scientist classify to order many kinds of organisms. Many scientists grouped living things either as a plant or animal before the 1600s. Carolus Linnaeus founded modern taxonomy in the 1700s. He tried to classify organisms by their shape and size. If an organism shares more characteristics with another, the more related they are. Some scientists use an eight level system to classify organism. They also use a branching diagram to classify. The eight levels of classification are domain, kingdom, phylum,. class, order, family, genus, and species. Scientist use scientific names for organisms. It consist of the organisms genus and species. Genus names begin with a capital letter, and species name begins with a lowercase letter. If you see an organism and you don't know what species it is, you can use a dichotomous key to figure out what it is. If the answer is not on the dichotomous key, you may have found a new organism.
Section Two: Domains and Kingdoms
Archaea- in a modern taxonomic system, a domain made up, of prokaryotes that differ from other prokaryotes in the makeup of their cell walls and in their genetics; this domain aligns with a traditional kingdom Archaeabacteria
Bacteria- in a modern taxonomic system, a domain made up, of prokaryotes that differ from other prokaryotes in the makeup of their cell walls and in their genetics; this domain aligns with the traditional kingdom Eubacteria
Eukarya- in a modern taxonomic system, a domain aligns with the traditional kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
Protista- a kingdom of mostly one-celled eukaryotic organisms that are different from plants, animals, and fungi
Fungi-a kingdom made up of nongreen, eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients
Plantae- a kingdom made up complex, multicellular organisms that are usually green, have cells walls made of cellulose, cannot move around, and use the sun's energy to make sugar by photosynthesis
Animalia- a kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that lack cells walls, can usually move around, and quickly respond to their environment
Chapter Nine, Section Two: Summary
The kingdoms of the three domains.
Section two was about kingdoms and domains. Archaea is a domain that aligns with the kingdom Archaeabacteria. Archaea are prokaryotes and can survive in extreme environments. Bacteria is a domain that aligns with the kingdom Eubacteria. Bacteria are also prokaryotes. Some bacteria cause disease, and others prevent disease caused by other bacteria. The domain Eukarya aligns with four kingdoms, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. Protista are commonly called protists. Protists are usually singled or simple multicelled organisms. Molds and mushrooms are apart of the kingdom Fungi. Fungi get their food by absorbing nutrients from their surroundings. Plants get their food by photosynthesizing Most life on Earth depends on plants to live. Animals belong to the kingdom Animalia. Animals hunt their food. Animals also have sense organs that help them respond to their environment quickly. Animals depend on organisms from other kingdoms to survive. There are organisms that are strange. Sponges belong to the kingdom Animalia. Sponges can't move and don't have sense organs, but they can't make their own food.
Now that you know about classification, here is a song about it.