Chapter Two: The Properties of Matter
Section One: What is Matter?
Matter- anything that has mass and takes up space
Volume- a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
Meniscus- the curve at a liquid's surface by which one measures the volume of the liquid
Mass- a measure of the amount of matter in an object
Weight- a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe
Inertia- the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object
Chapter Two, Section One: Summary
Section one was about matter, volume, mass and inertia. Anything that has mass and takes up space is matter. Volume is the measure of space in a three dimensional space. Liquid volume is measured in liters. You use a graduated cylinder to measure volume of a liquid. You look at the meniscus to find the volume of a liquid. You measure volume of a regular solid object by using the equation: L x W x H or length multiplied by the width and height. You find the volume of an irregularly shaped object you measure how much water was displaced when you put the object in. Mass and weight are not the same thing. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. weight is the measure of how much gravitational force is exerted on an object. the wight of object changes when you are in space, but the mass stays the same. Inertia is the tendency for an object to resist a change in motion. The more mass an object has the greater its inertia is.
Section Two: Physical Properties
Physical property- a characteristics of s substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
Density- the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
Physical Change- a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
Chapter Two; Section Two: Summary
Ice melting is a physical change because its still water.
Section two was about physical properties. Physical properties of matter can be observed or measured without changing the matter's identity. An example of a physical property is density. Density is the ratio of mass to volume. Liquids with different densities can be stacked on top of each other, from the most dense to the least dense. If the density of an object is less dense than water, the object will float. If the object is more dense than the water, it will sink. To find density you use the equation: D = m/v or mass divided volume. You can find mass and volume by rearranging the equation for density. The density of something is always the same at a given temperature and pressure. A physical change changes one or more physical properties of a substance. Melting, freezing, and dissolving are examples of physical properties. Physical changes do not change the identity of the matter involved.
Section Three: Chemical Properties
Chemical Property- a property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions
Chemical Change- a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
Chapter Two, Section Three: Summary
You cannot reverse bake these pancakes.
Section three was about chemical properties. Chemical properties describe matter based on its ability to change into new matter with different properties. Flammability is a chemical property. Unlike physical properties,chemical properties are not observed easily. A chemical change takes place when one or more substances change into a completely new substance with different properties. Chemical changes and chemical properties ARE NOT the same thing. Chemical properties describe what chemical changes will and will not occur. Chemical changes are the actual processes of when the substance changes. Odor, color, and heat production are signs of chemical changes. Chemical changes alter the identity of the matter involved, so it cannot be reversed in most cases. To determine if a chemical or physical change has occurred, ask the question: Did the composition change? Composition is the type of matter makes up an object and the way the matter is arranged in the object.Physical changes do not change the composition of a substance, only chemical changes alter the composition. Chemical changes cannot be easily reversed.