Chapter Eleven: Protists and Fungi
Section One: Protists
Protist- an organism that belongs to the kingdom Protista
Heterotroph- an organism that gets food by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot make organic compounds from inorganic materials
Parasite- an organism that feeds on an organism of another species (the host) and that usually harms the host; the host never benefits from the presence of the parasite
Host- an organism from which a parasite takes food or shelter
Chapter Eleven, Section One: Summary
This is a picture of P. Vivax.
Section one was about protists. Protists have many characteristics, but they are all eukaryoytic. Protists have thier own kingdom called Protista. Protist get their food in many ways. Protists can be producers, heterotriophs, decomposers, or parasitic. Producer protists make thier own food. Heterotrophs eat other organisms. Decomposer protists break down dead matter. Some heterotrophs are parasitic. Parasits invade thier host causeing harm to the host. Protists reproduce either sexually, asexually, or both sexually and asexually. Some protists reproduce asexually by binary or multiple fission. During multiple fission two or more offspring. Protists may reproduce sexually by conjuction. During conjuction, two protists combine and exchange genetic material. Protists may reproduce sexually at one stage of its life cycle and asexually at another.protists can change forms in its like cycle, such as Plasmodium vivax or the virus that causes malaria. Both mosquitos and humans get affected by P. vivax.
Section Two: Kinds of Protists
Algae- eukaryotic organisms that convert the sun's energy into food through photosynethesis but that do not have roots, stems, and leaves
Photosynthesis- the microscopic photosynthetic organisms that float near the surface of marine or fresh water
Chapter Eleven, Section Two: Summary
There is one green, one brown and two red algae.
Section two was about kinds of protists. Protists that produce are algae. Algae that floats around is know as phytoplankton. There are three forms of algae, red, green, and brown algae. Most seaweed on Earth is red algae. Green algae is the most diverse group of algae Diatoms, dinoflagellates, and euglenoids are protists producers. Diatoms have many unusual shapes. Dinoflagelletes use flagella to move around. Euglenoids can get food as a producer, but if there isn't enough light it will get its food as a heterotroph. Amoebas move with help from pseudopodia. Amoebas also use thier pseudopodia to get food. Zooflagelletes and ciliates are also protists that can move. Spore forming protists don't have flagella or cilia. Water and slime molds are protists that can't move. They have complicated life cycles. Slime molds can only move at certain phases of thier life.
Section Three: Fungi
fungus- an organism whose cells have nuclei, rigid cell walls, and no chlorophyll and that belongs to the kingdom Fungi
hypha- a non reproductive filament of a fungus
mycelium- the mass of fungal filaments, or hyphae, that forms the body of a fungus
spore- a reproductive cell or multicellular structure that is resistant to stressful environmental conditions and that is resistant to stressful environmental conditions and that can develop into an adult without fusing with another cell
mold- a fungus that looks like wool or cotton
lichen- a mass of fungal and algal cells that grow together in a symbiotic relationship and that are usually found on rocks or trees
Chapter Eleven, Section Three: Summary
Image of a Christmas lichen.
Section three was about fungi. Fungi get their food by living on or near their food supply. Fungi have hidden masses of hyphae or threadlike fungal filaments. A mass of hyphae is called mycelium. Fungi use spores to reproduce asexually. Fungi use special structures to reproduce sexually. There re four different types of fungi, threadlike, sac, cub, and imperfect. Mold is a threadlike fungi. Threadlike fungi use sporigia, which are spore cases, when conditions are not right for normal reproduction. Sac fungi is the largest group. Yeast is a sac fungi. Yeast use a method called budding to reproduce. Mushrooms belong to the group club fungi. Imperfect fungi are fungi that don't fit anywhere else. Lichen is a combination of a fungus and alga. Lichen are different from fungi because they are producers. Lichen are different from algae because lichen can kept from drying out. Lichen absorb water and minerals from the air.