Chapter Ten: Bacteria and Viruses
Section One: Bacteria and Archaea
Prokaryote- an organism that consists of a single cell that does not have a nucleus
Binary Fission- a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
Endospore- a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions
Chapter Ten, Section One: Summary
The three common shapes of bacteria.
Section one was about the characteristics of archaea and bacteria. Bacteria have three common shapes, bacilli, cocci and spirrilla. Spirrilla are long and in a spiral shape. Cocci are spherical shaped. Bacilli are rod shaped. Bacteria also use flagella. Flagella are hairlike parts that help them move around. Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes, which means they don't have a nucleus. Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission. Binary fission begins with the cell's DNA being copied. The copy and DNA attach to the membrane. The cell begins to pinch in the middle and becomes two cells. When bacteria becomes inactive it forms and endospore. When conditions get better the endospore breaks and the bacteria becomes active again. Bacteria are classified by the way they get food. Consumers eat other organisms. Decomposers eat dead organisms. Producers make their own food. Cyanobacteria live in water. They have the green pigment called chlorophyll. They also have red and blue pigments. There are three types of archaea are heat and salt lovers, and methane makers. Heat lovers live in hot water. Salt lovers live in extremely salty water. Methane makers make methane gas. They can live in swamps and animals' intestines. Most archaea live in areas with little or no oxygen. Archaea can also live in moderate environments. Archaea are different than bacteria. Every archaea don't have cell walls. They do have cell walls that are chemically different than bacteria.
Section Two: Bacteria's Role in the World
Bioremediation- the biological treatment of hazardous waste by living things
Antibotic- medicine used to kill bacteria and other microorganisms
Pathological Bacteria- bacteria that cause disease
Chapter Ten; Section Two: Summary
This food was made by bacteria!
Section two was about how bacteria effect life. Bacteria can help plants get nitrogen. Decomposer bacteria help break down dead plants and animals. The dead matter gives nutrients to other organisms. Bioremediation changes harmful chemicals to harmless ones. Bacteria also help produce foods. Lactic acid bacteria break down milk's sugar, lactose. The bacteria change the sugars into lactic acid. Bacteria can be used to kill other bacteria, called antibiotics. Genes can be put into bacteria to make insulin. Insulin helps with people who have diabetes. Pathogenic bacteria cause diseases. They enter the host's cell and take its nutrients. Pathogenic bacteria is not only in humans. Pathogenic bacteria can also occur in plants and fungi.
Section Three: Viruses
Virus- a micrsopic particle that gets inside a cell and often destroys the cell
Host- an organism from which a parasite takes food or shelter
Chapter Ten; Section Three: Summary
A virus during the lytic cycle.
Section three was about viruses. Viruses are small. 5 billion viruses can fit on one drop of blood. Viruses aren't living things. Viruses are particles, not cells. They can't eat, grow, break down food, or use oxygen. The only thing in common viruses and living things is being able to reproduce. Viruses are classified by their shape, the disease they cause, their life cycle, or the genetic material they have. Genetic material in viruses are either RNA or DNA. Viruses also have protein coats. The protein coat protects the genetic material inside the virus. During the lytic cycle forces cells to make viruses. During the lysogenic cycle, virus genes are inactive for a long time. Antiviral medicine prevent viral infections from happening. If you get a virus stay in bed and drink extra liquids.